Purpose: This study reviews adrenocortical tumors in children to determine factors that significantly affect outcome. Methods: An institutional review board-approved retrospective review from 1976 to 2005 identified 23 patients younger than 19 years old with histologic confirmation of adrenocortical carcinoma (ACC) and adenomas. Results: The mean age of the 23 children was 9.0 ± 1.6 years; girls predominated (female-to-male ratio = 1.9:1) as did cancers (ACC 16, adenoma 7); tumor hormone production (74%); and advanced stage for disease (66%). All malignancies were more than 2.5 cm. Adrenalectomy, including en bloc resection of adjacent structures (35%) achieved grossly negative margins in 70% of patients. Three patients received chemotherapy or chemoradiation as primary treatment without surgery. There was no perioperative mortality; morbidity was 10% (pneumothorax, acute renal failure, chylous ascites, and thrombocytosis). Surgical cure without adjuvant therapy was achieved for all adenomas and ACC stages I and II. For ACC stage III and IV, median survival was 21 months, 5-year survival was 0%. All advanced-staged ACC received adjuvant therapy. Surgically negative margins conferred a survival advantage. Conclusions: Children, especially females with ACC present with large advanced-staged tumors. Surgically negative margins with or without en bloc resection improves survival. The high percentage of children with functioning tumors suggests earlier detection is possible. © 2008 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.