Tumorigenesis of pancreatic cancer (PC) and the pathophysiology of type 2 diabetes mellitus (DM2) are emerging as intertwined pathways. As the operative morbidity and mortality of pancreatectomy has improved, incidence has increased and survival has remained mostly unchanged. The diagnosis of DM2 suggests pancreatic dysfunction and possible early carcinogenesis. DM2 is a significant comorbidity predicting worse outcomes in patients undergoing pancreatic resection as part of the treatment of PC. This article examines this phenomena and suggests possible approaches to screening and diagnosis. © 2013 Elsevier Inc.