Cluster analysis and chronic pain: An empirical classification of pain subgroups in a spinal cord injury sample

Academic Article


  • Objective: To determine the existence of homogeneous spinal cord injury (SCI) pain subgroups. Design: Prospective longitudinal design. Participants: Persons with traumatic onset SCI (N = 1,334) with self-reported pain, pain interference, and depression. Outcome Measures: Pain (Numerical Rating Scale); pain interference (item from the Short Form-12); and depression (Brief Patient Health Questionnaire). Results: Multivariate clustering revealed 4 SCI pain subgroups: low pain (low pain intensity, pain interference, and depression); positive adaptation to pain (high pain intensity, low pain interference and depression); minimal distress (high pain intensity, high pain interference, and low depression); and chronic pain syndrome (high pain intensity, pain interference, and depression). Conclusions: The characteristics of homogeneous SCI pain subgroups may be important for clinicians to consider in treatment planning and research. Copyright 2005 by the Educational Publishing Foundation.
  • Published In

    Digital Object Identifier (doi)

    Author List

  • Wilson MW; Richards JS; Klapow JC; DeVivo MJ; Greene P
  • Start Page

  • 381
  • End Page

  • 388
  • Volume

  • 50
  • Issue

  • 4