Two simultaneous surveys were conducted by the Association of Residents in Radiation Oncology (ARRO). A survey of all residents in Radiation Oncology was conducted to obtain information on trends in residency training. A simultaneous survey of Chief Residents was obtained to determine more specific information on current training programs. Over one-half of residents responded. Eighty-eight percent of respondents were graduates of a North American medical school. Most did at least an internship prior to entering Radiation Oncology and 3 4 of those who did not do a separate internship rotated through other areas at a later time to broaden their knowledge. One-half are Board certified or Board eligible in another specialty or hold a Masters or Ph.D. degree. Three-quarters of all residents had authorship of at least one paper during training and one-half were primary authors. Eighty percent felt adequately prepared for practice after residency. One-half plan at least an initial post-residency affiliation with an academic center. Many were concerned that Radiation Oncologists are not afforded respect equivalent to that of other specialties. Ninety-eight percent favored departmental status for Radiation Oncology. Resident recommendations for improving the image of Radiation Oncology are presented. © 1987.