Hyperthermia as a treatment for cancer has elicited much recent interest. However, major difficulties persist both in the technology for heating deep-seated tumors, and in thermal dosimetry. We have investigated a heating technique for deep-seated neoplasms that employs an internal implanted electrode and an external electrode to apply radio-frequency current to a tumor mass. The internal electrode consists of an array of stainless steel needles or wires which define a Faraday cage within the tumor, while the external electrode consists of a variety of electrical conductors at the skin surface. Phantom measurements have closely reproduced calculated temperature distributions. The temperature profiles within the volume enclosed by the internal electrode show relatively homogenous heating. Temperature measurements in a rat tumor model have demonstrated that significant heating within such an internal electrode array is easily obtained. The heating may extend some centimeters outside the electrode. Using a dog model we have shown that with such a treatment technique the temperature profiles obtained are reproducible both spatially and temporally. A case report of a clinical application is presented. A 5 em bronchogenic carcinoma was easily heated without significant heating of the surrounding normal lung, and without apparent toxicity. Such a technique may be applicable to a variety of operable but unresectable neoplasms. The reproducibility and relative homogeneity of heating suggest possible usefulness in combined modality trials. © 1983.