Purpose: A retrospective analysis was performed to assess the efficacy of various treatments of Stage 1E primary non-Hodgkins lymphoma of bone. Methods and Materials: Sixty-three patients with Stage IE primary non-Hodgkins lymphoma of bone (single osseous focus) were seen at our institution between the years 1970 and 1989. Information was obtained regarding each patients' presentation and clinical course. The histology was reviewed in all patients. Modern immunohistochemical stains were performed on each case with available paraffin-embedded tissue. Results: The histologic classification of the tumors was as follows: 43 diffuse large cell, 13 diffuse mixed cell, 3 small noncleaved, and 4 unclassified. The most common presenting symptom was pain (97%) and the following bony sites were involved: 36 long bone, 9 flat bone, 13 spine, and 5 pelvis. Of the 63 cases, 50 were treated with radiation alone, 10 with chemotherapy and radiation, 2 with chemotherapy alone, and 1 with surgery alone. Univariate analysis revealed a suggestion of an improved 5-year disease-free survival for patients treated with chemotherapy and radiation vs. radiation alone (90% vs. 57% respectively, p = .08). Multivariate analysis (controlling for extent of initial evaluation, extent of pathological evaluation and other potential prognostic factors) showed that neither treatment resulted in superior outcome with respect to disease-free survival, disease specific survival, or overall survival, however, doses of radiation greater than 4000 cGy resulted in improved overall survival compared to lower doses (p = 0.01). Conclusion: This study supports the use of primary RT (> 4000 cGy) for Stage IE PLB, however, the addition of chemotherapy to the radiotherapeutic management may decrease the initial relapse rate of some patients. Future studies should address this question. © 1993.