© 2016 Despite remarkable improvements in survival of extremely premature infants, the burden of BPD among survivors remains a frustrating problem for parents and caregivers. Advances, such as antenatal steroids and surfactant replacement, which have dramatically improved survival, have not reduced BPD among survivors. Other advances that have significantly improved the combined outcome of death or BPD, such as vitamin A and avoidance of mechanical ventilation, have had smaller magnitude effects on the outcome of BPD alone. Postnatal steroids have a clear beneficial effect on BPD, but the optimal preparation, dose, and timing for maximizing benefit and minimizing harm have yet to be determined. This persistent burden of BPD among the most immature survivors remains a challenge for the NRN and other researchers in neonatal medicine.