Rationale: Fatty acid nitroalkenes are endogenously generated electrophilic byproducts of nitric oxide and nitrite-dependent oxidative inflammatory reactions. Existing evidence indicates nitroalkenes support posttranslational protein modifications and transcriptional activation that promote the resolution of inflammation. Objective: The aim of this study was to assess whether in vivo administration of a synthetic nitroalkene could elicit antiinflammatory actions in vivo using a murine model of vascular injury. Methods and Results: The in vivo administration (21 days) of nitro-oleic acid (OA-NO2) inhibited neointimal hyperplasia after wire injury of the femoral artery in a murine model (OA-NO2 treatment resulted in reduced intimal area and intima to media ratio versus vehicle-or oleic acid (OA)-treated animals, P<0.0001). Increased heme oxygenase (HO)-1 expression accounted for much of the vascular protection induced by OA-NO2 in both cultured aortic smooth muscle cells and in vivo. Inhibition of HO by Sn(IV)-protoporphyrin or HO-1 small interfering RNA reversed OA-NO2-induced inhibition of platelet-derived growth factor-stimulated rat aortic smooth muscle cell migration. The upregulation of HO-1 expression also accounted for the antistenotic actions of OA-NO2 in vivo, because inhibition of neointimal hyperplasia following femoral artery injury was abolished in HO-1-/- mice (OA-NO2-treated wild-type versus HO-1 -/- mice, P=0.016). Conclusions: In summary, electrophilic nitro-fatty acids induce salutary gene expression and cell functional responses that are manifested by a clinically significant outcome, inhibition of neointimal hyperplasia induced by arterial injury. © 2009 American Heart Association, Inc.