OBJECTIVE: Our purpose was to determine whether the combination of maternal serum α-fetoprotein, free human chorionic gonadotropin-β, dimeric inhibin A, and maternal age detects aneuploidies other than Down syndrome. STUDY DESIGN: We retrieved stored serum from pregnancies complicated by aneuploidies other than Down syndrome from 1988 to 1997 (n = 55, mean maternal age 35.2 ± 56 years). α-Fetoprotein levels were obtained from our database, and free human chorionic gonadotropin-β and dimeric inhibin A levels were measured in the thawed serum with use of commercial assays. Analyte values were used in both 3-analyte and 2-analyte multiple-marker screening tests; detection rates were determined at several different Down syndrome risk-positive cutoff values. RESULTS: In the 3-analyte test 58% (32/55) of all aneuploidies were detected with use of both the Down syndrome protocol at a screen-positive risk cutoff value of 1:300 (false-positive rate 17%) and a novel trisomy 18 screening algorithm. However, 67% (37/55) detection was obtained with use of the 2-analyte combination of (α- fetoprotein and dimeric inhibin A, with both the Down syndrome protocol (screen positive cutoff value 1:300) and the trisomy 18 algorithm: 12 of 13 trisomy 18 (92%), 9 of 17 Turner's syndrome (53%), 10 of 17 other sex chromosome aneuploidies (59%), 1 of 1 trisomy 22 (100%), and 5 of 7 trisomy 13 (71%). CONCLUSIONS: The combination of maternal serum o:-fetoprotein, dimeric inhibin A, and maternal age detects autosomal trisomies other than Down syndrome at a rate superior to that of the traditional analyte combination.