The objective of this study was to determine the outcomes of gynecological oncology patients requiring intensive care unit (ICU) admission following surgery. A computerized database identified postsurgical ICU admissions from January 1, 1999 to December 31, 2004 at a university hospital. Abstracted data included: demographics, preoperative diagnosis, reason(s) for ICU admission, consultations, interventions, length of stay (LOS), Acute Physiology and Chronic Health Evaluation (APACHE) II score, and 30-day mortality. Statistical analysis was performed with the Student's t-test. A total of 185 surgical gynecological oncology ICU patients was identified. Median age was 60 years (range, 21-92 years), and 63% of patients were white. Only 72% of patients had ovarian, endometrial, or cervical cancer. The most common indications for ICU admission were volume resuscitation (108 patients) and respiratory insufficiency (80 patients). Median ICU LOS was 1 day (range, 1-55 days). Patients surviving their hospital admission had a mean APACHE II score of 11.5 (range, 2-37) compared to a mean of 21.2 (range, 13-44) for patients who died prior to hospital discharge (P < 0.001). The overall mortality rate was 12%. A substantial number of gynecological oncology patients will be admitted to the ICU following surgery. Patient outcomes are favorable if APACHE II scores are low and ICU LOS is short. © 2006, Copyright the Authors.