Objective.: Primary carcinoma of the fallopian tube (PCFT) is a rare malignancy comprising 1% of genital tract cancers. We sought to compare survival trends between PCFT and ovarian carcinoma (OC) patients (pts) in a matched, case-control comparison. Materials and methods.: Patients with PCFT were identified from five academic centers. Two OC controls were identified for each PCFT pt based on age, stage, and residual disease. All pts were surgically staged and treated with platinum based chemotherapy (CT) if indicated. PFS and OS were then compared with Kaplan-Meier analysis. Results.: 96 PCFT cases and 189 OC controls were identified. 50 early stage PCFT were matched with 97 OC pts. The most common CT regimen was carboplatinum and paclitaxel in 84 and 86% respectively. Median follow-up was 57 and 42 months for the PCFT and OC groups and 5-year overall survival (OS) differed at 95% and 76% (p = 0.02). 46 Stage III/IV PCFT pts were matched with 92 OC controls. 88.5% were optimally debulked. Median follow-up was 33 and 35 months for PCFT and OC pts and 3-year overall survival was 59% for both groups. Conclusions.: This is the first study to compare outcomes for PCFT and OC in a matched, case-control comparison. Our study demonstrates that, for advanced stage PCFT, a similar survival outcome is obtained compared to OC patients. This should reassure clinicians that treatment of PCFT should mirror that of OC and that PCFT should be included in clinical trials. © 2007 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.