Lennox-Gastaut syndrome symptomatic to hypothalamic hamartoma: Evolution and long-term outcome following surgery

Academic Article


  • Background: Lennox-Gastaut syndrome is a catastrophic childhood cryptogenic or symptomatic epilepsy. Hypothalamic hamartomas cause refractory epilepsy often consistent with Lennox-Gastaut syndrome. Methods: Children with Lennox-Gastaut syndrome were defined by a triad of multiple generalized seizure types, slow spike-and-wave on EEG, and mental retardation. Results: Twenty-one of 159 hypothalamic hamartoma patients (14%) met the diagnostic criteria of Lennox-Gastaut syndrome. The median age of patients at epilepsy onset was 0.9 years (range, birth to 9 years). Six of the 21 patients (28%) had preceding infantile spasms. All patients underwent different surgical approaches, including endoscopic, transcallosal, orbitozygomatic resections, and radiosurgery treatment. Five of the 21 (24%) were seizure free with an additional 9 (42%) having at least >90% seizure reduction. Only 1 patient was not effectively treated (<50% seizure reduction). Eighty-eight percent of parents reported improvement in behavioral functioning. Shorter duration of epilepsy prior to surgery was a significant predictor of surgical outcome. Conclusions: Patients with Lennox-Gastaut syndrome symptomatic to hypothalamic hamartomas have better postsurgical outcome due to other etiologies compared with cryptogenic and symptomatic Lennox-Gastaut syndrome patients. However, compared with overall hypothalamic hamartomas postsurgical outcomes, this cohort was less favorable. Earlier surgery may lead to better outcomes. © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
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    Author List

  • Pati S; Deep A; Troester MM; Kossoff EH; Ng YT
  • Start Page

  • 25
  • End Page

  • 30
  • Volume

  • 49
  • Issue

  • 1