Purpose: We empirically examined the contribution of neuropsychological data to the prediction of postoperative seizure control relative to base rate information in an existing series of patients undergoing anterior temporal lobectomy (ATL). Methods: A discriminant function predicting surgery outcome (seizure-free vs. non-seizure-free) was computed separately for samples of patients with left (n = 79) and right (n = 62) temporal lobectomy (LATL, RATL). Predictor variables included 14 measures tapping five neurocognitive domains. The predicted base rates were compared with the actual base rates in the two samples. Finally, overall predictive accuracy was examined in optimal versus suboptimal ATL patients. Results: The base rate of seizure freedom in the LATL group was 74.70%; that in the RATL group was 66.10%. The predictive function for the LATL group achieved a hit rate of 80.00% and a positive predictive power of 92.11%. The function for the RATL group achieved a hit rate of 83.33% and a positive predictive power (PPP) of 89.66%. The overall predictive accuracy for the optimal group was only 55%, but that in the suboptimal group was 72%. Conclusions: Neuropsychological data used in a multivariate statistical fashion may be able to offer an incremental increase in the prediction of postoperative seizure freedom relative to existing base rates of surgery success in patients with ATL epilepsy. The use of neuropsychological data may be of greatest predictive value in a population of ATL candidates with suboptimal findings with a lower base rate of postoperative seizure freedom, but may actually reduce predictive accuracy in a group of ATL candidates from an optimal population with an already high base rate of surgical success.