Proliferative responses of human lymphocytes primed in vitro to autologous TNP-cells were found to be associated with autologous D-region determinants irrespective of HLA-B locus antigens. Family studies of secondary TNP-conjugate proliferative responses demonstrated a gene dosage effect in this phenomenon. Moreover, co-culture with allogeneic cells did not affect the net TNP-conjugate proliferative responses of primed responder cells, suggesting that HLA-D region preference was due to a requirement for representation of TNP-molecules in association or combination with autologous MHC structures. Alloantigens were found to influence the sensitization of lymphocytes to autologous hapten-conjugated cells. Co-culture of allogeneic and TNP-modified autologous stimulator cells in primary cultures enhanced the secondary TNP proliferative response. Sensitization of human lymphocytes to allogeneic cells alone did not prime responses to autologous modified cells. However, priming lymphocytes to modified autologous cells potentiated responses to allogeneic cells. The data suggest a complex relationship between responses to alloantigens and modified autologous cells.