Amiloride is a reversible inhibitor of the Na+/H+ antiporter which acts at the external aspect of the transport system. The kinetics of inhibition of the Na+/H+ antiporter with amiloride have been controversial, with the usual finding of simple competitive inhibition, but with other reports of mixed and noncompetitive inhibition of the transporter by amiloride. The present experiments demonstrate that the chloride content of the external transport buffer affects the kinetics of amiloride inhibition. Either simple competitive or mixed inhibition by amiloride was observed in the same vesicle preparations depending on the presence of chloride or gluconate in the buffer. The effect of chloride on the inhibitory effect of amiloride was dependent on the concentration of chloride and amiloride. Similar effects were observed with more potent analogues of amiloride. These findings suggest that the external aspect of the antiporter has a site or sites at which the inhibitory effects of amiloride on the Na+/H+ antiporter can be modified by chloride, even though chloride has only slight effects on the kinetics of the Na+/H+ antiporter in the absence of amiloride.