The Emory University Perioperative Algorithm for the Management of Hyperglycemia and Diabetes in Non-cardiac Surgery Patients

Academic Article

Abstract

  • Hyperglycemia is a frequent manifestation of critical and surgical illness, resulting from the acute metabolic and hormonal changes associated with the response to injury and stress (Umpierrez and Kitabchi, Curr Opin Endocrinol. 11:75–81, 2004; McCowen et al., Crit Care Clin. 17(1):107–24, 2001). The exact prevalence of hospital hyperglycemia is not known, but observational studies have reported a prevalence of hyperglycemia ranging from 32 to 60 % in community hospitals (Umpierrez et al., J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 87(3):978–82, 2002; Cook et al., J Hosp Med. 4(9):E7–14, 2009; Farrokhi et al., Best Pract Res Clin Endocrinol Metab. 25(5):813–24, 2011), and 80 % of patients after cardiac surgery (Schmeltz et al., Diabetes Care 30(4):823–8, 2007; van den Berghe et al., N Engl J Med. 345(19):1359–67, 2001). Retrospective and randomized controlled trials in surgical populations have reported that hyperglycemia and diabetes are associated with increased length of stay, hospital complications, resource utilization, and mortality (Frisch et al., Diabetes Care 33(8):1783–8, 2010; Kwon et al., Ann Surg. 257(1):8–14, 2013; Bower et al., Surgery 147(5):670–5, 2010; Noordzij et al., Eur J Endocrinol. 156(1):137–42, 2007; Mraovic et al., J Arthroplasty 25(1):64–70, 2010). Substantial evidence indicates that correction of hyperglycemia reduces complications in critically ill, as well as in general surgery patients (Umpierrez et al., J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 87(3):978–82, 2002; Clement et al., Diabetes Care 27(2):553–97, 2004; Pomposelli et al., JPEN J Parented Enteral Nutr. 22(2):77–81, 1998). This manuscript reviews the pathophysiology of stress hyperglycemia during anesthesia and the perioperative period. We provide a practical outline for the diagnosis and management of preoperative, intraoperative, and postoperative care of patients with diabetes and hyperglycemia.
  • Published In

    Digital Object Identifier (doi)

    Pubmed Id

  • 22246283
  • Author List

  • Duggan EW; Klopman MA; Berry AJ; Umpierrez G
  • Volume

  • 16
  • Issue

  • 3