© Copyright 2016 The American Society of Transplantation and the American Society of Transplant Surgeons Excellent outcomes have been demonstrated in primary human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)–positive (HIV+) kidney transplant recipients, but a subset will lose their graft and seek retransplantation (re-KT). To date, no study has examined outcomes among HIV+ re-KT recipients. We studied risk for death and graft loss among 4149 (22 HIV+ vs. 4127 HIV-negative [HIV−]) adult re-KT recipients reported to the Scientific Registry of Transplant Recipients (SRTR) (2004–2013). Compared to HIV− re-KT recipients, HIV+ re-KT recipients were more commonly African American (63.6% vs. 26.7%, p < 0.001), infected with hepatitis C (31.8% vs. 5.0%, p < 0.001) and had longer median time on dialysis (4.8 years vs. 2.1 years, p = 0.02). There were no significant differences in length of time between the primary and re-KT events by HIV status (1.5 years vs. 1.4 years, p = 0.52). HIV+ re-KT recipients experienced a 3.11-fold increased risk of death (adjusted hazard ratio [aHR]: 3.11, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.82–5.34, p < 0.001) and a 1.96-fold increased risk of graft loss (aHR: 1.96, 95% CI: 1.14–3.36, p = 0.01) compared to HIV− re-KT recipients. Re-KT among HIV+ recipients was associated with increased risk for mortality and graft loss. Future research is needed to determine if a survival benefit is achieved with re-KT in this vulnerable population.