Objectives: Collecting duct carcinoma (CDC) is a rare and aggressive renal tumor with a tendency to involve the renal sinus. CDC displays variable morphologic features that can overlap with those of renal medullary carcinoma. The loss of SMARCB1/INI1 tumor suppressor gene, initially found in pediatric malignant rhabdoid tumors of the central nervous system, kidneys, and soft tissues, was also recently described in renal medullary carcinoma. The current immunohistochemical study assessed SMARCB1/INI1 expression in a series of CDCs. Methods: A total of 20 archival cases of CDC were used to construct a tissue microarray. Each tumor was spotted 3-7 times; benign tissue from the same specimen was also included when available. The immunoexpression of SMARCB1/INI1 was evaluated using BAF47, a monoclonal mouse antibody directed against the SMARCB1/INI1 gene product. Nuclear staining was considered as indicative of SMARCB1/INI1 expression. Results: The complete loss of SMARCB1/INI1 expression was observed in 3 of 20 cases of CDC. Another 3 cases revealed focal and weak intensity staining. The remaining tumors showed multifocal or diffuse SMARCB1/INI1 expression with variable staining intensity. No significant differences were found in the clinicopathologic and outcome features regarding SMARCB1/INI1 status. Conclusions: The complete loss of SMARCB1/INI1 immunoexpression was found in 15% of CDC. No differences were found between the SMARCB1/INI1 positive and negative cases regarding the clinicopathologic and outcome features. Our results suggest that some CDC cases might be associated with genetic alterations involving the SMARCB1/INI1 gene. In addition, SMARCB1/INI1 immunoexpression seems to be of limited value in the differential diagnosis of CDC versus renal medullary carcinoma, although these results require additional validation. © 2011 Elsevier Inc.