Myeloablative chemotherapy followed by transplantation of a T cell-depleted bone marrow graft from a partially mismatched related donor provides a potentially curative option for patients with leukemia and other disorders of hematopoiesis, although the patient is faced with a period of sustained immunodeficiency as well as pharmacologic immunosuppression as a result of prophylaxis against graft-versus-host disease. Thirty patients who received one to three antigen T cell-depleted mismatched grafts were evaluated for immune reconstitution. The percentage and numbers of cells expressing lymphocyte subset antigens were determined by flow cytometry at 14, 28, 60, 100, 180, 270 and 365 days post-BMT and at 6 month intervals thereafter. Lymphocyte reconstitution was characterized by the early appearance of natural killer cells and a low percentage of both T and B cells. During the first year after BMT, the number of NK cells remained constant while T and B cells gradually returned to normal numbers and proportions. Response to the lymphocyte mitogen phytohemagglutinin returned to normal over the course of 2 years, while the response to concanavalin A was slightly depressed and the response to pokeweed mitogen became supranormal at about 1.5 years and continued to increase. These data suggest the need for long-term immunophenotypic monitoring as well as prolonged infection surveillance and prophylaxis.