Exploration of cancer immunotherapy strategies that incorporate γδ T cells as primary mediators of antitumor immunity are just beginning to be explored and with a primary focus on the use of manufactured phosphoantigen-stimulated Vγ9Vδ2 T cells. Increasing evidence, however, supports a critical role for Vδ1+ γδ T cells, a minor subset in peripheral blood with distinct innate recognition properties that possess powerful tumoricidal activity. They are activated by a host of ligands including stress-induced self-antigens, glycolipids presented by CD1c/d, and potentially many others that currently remain unidentified. In contrast to Vγ9Vδ2 T cells, tumor-reactive Vδ1+ T cells are not as susceptible to activation-induced cell death and can persist in the circulation for many years, potentially offering durable immunity to some cancers. In addition, specific populations of Vδ1+ T cells can also exhibit immunosuppressive and regulatory properties, a function that can also be exploited for therapeutic purposes. This review explores the biology, function, manufacturing strategies, and potential therapeutic role of Vδ1+ T cells. We also discuss clinical experience with Vδ1+ T cells in the setting of cancer, as well as the potential of and barriers to the development of Vδ1+ T cell-based adoptive cell therapy strategies. © The American Society of Gene & Cell Therapy.