The inadvertent production of replication competent retrovirus (RCR) constitutes the principal safety concern for the use of lentiviral vectors in human clinical protocols. Because of limitations in animal models to evaluate lentiviral vectors for their potential to recombine and induce disease, the vector design itself should ensure against the emergence of RCR in vivo. Issues related to RCR generation and one approach to dealing with this problem are discussed in this chapter. To assess the risk of generating RCR, a highly sensitive biological assay was developed to specifically detect vector recombination in transduced cells. Analysis of lentiviral vector stocks has shown that recombination occurs during reverse transcription in primary target cells. Rejoining of viral protein-coding sequences of the packaging construct and cis-acting sequences of the vector was demonstrated to generate env-minus recombinants (LTR-gag-pol-LTR). Mobilization of recombinant lentiviral genomes was also demonstrated but was dependent on pseudotyping of the vector core with an exogenous envelope protein. 5′ sequence analysis has demonstrated that recombinants consist of U3, R, U5, and the ψ packaging signal joined with an open gag coding region. Analysis of the 3′ end has mapped the point of vector recombination to the poly(A) tract of the packaging construct's mRNA. The state-of-the-art third generation packaging construct and SIN vector also have been shown to generate env-minus proviral recombinants capable of mobilizing retroviral DNA when pseudotyped with an exogenous envelope protein. A new class of HIV-based vector (trans-vector) was recently developed that splits the gag-pol component of the packaging construct into two parts: one that expresses Gag/Gag-Pro and another that expresses Pol (RT and IN) fused with Vpr. Unlike other lentiviral vectors, the trans-vector has not been shown to form recombinants capable of DNA mobilization. These results indicate the trans-vector design prevents the generation of env-minus recombinant lentivirus containing a functional gagpol structure (LTR-gag-pol-LTR), which is absolutely required for retroviral DNA mobilization and the emergence of RCR. Quality assurance based on monitoring for RCR may have limitations as a predictor of safety in vivo, especially in the long term. The demonstration of lentivirus infection via alternative entry mechanisms supports this notion. Therefore, the approach of monitoring trans-vector stocks for env-minus recombinant virus in vitro as a surrogate marker for the possible emergence of RCR in vivo should represent a significant advancement in vector safety quality assurance.