BACKGROUND: The objective of the current study was to assess how the suspicious category is followed up in a large endoscopic ultrasound-guided fine-needle aspiration (EUS-FNA) service, its outcomes, and the predictors that are likely to be associated with the subsequent diagnosis of a neoplastic process. METHODS: For pancreatic EUS-FNA samples with the suspicious category diagnosis, the authors reviewed the electronic medical record for the method of follow-up and the risks associated with pancreatic malignancy. Logistic regression analysis was used to determine the risk factors that were likely to be associated with the diagnosis of a neoplastic lesion after a cytologic diagnosis of “suspicious.” RESULTS: Of a total of 3832 EUS-FNA cases, 116 were diagnosed with suspicious cytology. A total of 90 of 98 neoplasms (92%) were identified, including 72 carcinomas (73%). Similar rates of neoplasia were detected after repeat FNA (34 of 37 neoplasms [92%]) and subsequent biopsy/surgical resection (44 of 46 neoplasms [96%]), but significantly fewer neoplasms were detected among patients with clinical follow-up (18 of 23 neoplasms [78%]). On multivariate analysis of the potential predictive variables listed above, the presence of a mass was found to be significantly associated with a higher rate of diagnosis of a neoplasm, whereas weight loss was significantly associated with a diagnosis of carcinoma. CONCLUSIONS: The diagnostic category of “suspicious” is associated with a high risk of benign and malignant neoplasms, regardless of the method of follow-up. The presence of a mass and weight loss are significant predictors of a subsequent diagnosis of a neoplasm after suspicious cytology. In patients with suspicious cytology and these findings, surgery is recommended for resectable masses and repeat FNA for unresectable masses.