The colon is a frequent site of gastrointestinal complications in patients with HIV infection, and these colonic disorders increase in frequency as immunodeficiency worsens. The most common clinical manifestations of colonic disease in AIDS are diarrhea, lower gastrointestinal bleeding, and abdominal pain. Toxic megacolon, intussuseption, typhlitis, idiopathic colonic ulcer, and pneumatosis intestinalis also have been described. In the HIV-infected patient with preserved immunity, the most common cause of colitis is bacterial, but as the degree of immunodeficiency worsens, opportunistic pathogens (CMV, protozoa, mycobacteria, fungi) and neoplasms become more frequent. The frequent use of antibiotics, chemotherapeutic agents, and frequent hospitalization increase the susceptibility to Clostridium difficule colitis. Endoscopy plays an integral role in the management of many colonic disorders in AIDS.