BACKGROUND: Data on sphincter of Oddi dysfunction (SOD) in children are scant. Most children diagnosed with SOD are treated by biliary sphincterotomy with suboptimal results. The efficacy and safety of pancreatic and dual sphincterotomy in children with SOD has not been previously reported. OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the efficacy and safety of pancreatic and dual sphincterotomy in children with SOD. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Prospective evaluation of all children who underwent endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatogram (ERCP) with sphincter of Oddi manometry for evaluation of suspected SOD over a 3-year period. Children diagnosed with SOD underwent pancreatic or dual sphincterotomy with prophylactic pancreatic stenting. RESULTS: SOD was diagnosed by sphincter of Oddi manometry in 6 of 11 children who underwent ERCP for suspected SOD. Of the 6 children (mean age, 11 years; range, 5-16; 4 girls) with SOD, 3 presented with recurrent pancreatitis and 3 with postcholecystectomy pain. Pancreatic sphincter hypertension was noted in all 6 patients; concomitant biliary sphincter hypertension was noted in 3 patients with postcholecystectomy pain. Patients with recurrent pancreatitis underwent pancreatic sphincterotomy and those with postcholecystectomy pain underwent dual sphincterotomy. Prophylactic pancreatic stents were placed in all patients. One girl experienced mild post-ERCP pancreatitis. At a mean follow-up of 583 days (range, 325-1445), 4 patients were asymptomatic, 1 experienced partial symptom relief and 1 had recurrent symptoms. CONCLUSIONS: As in adults, pancreatic and dual sphincterotomy, in expert hands, is effective and safe in a subgroup of children with SOD. Prospective, randomized trials with larger number of patients are required to validate the efficacy of endotherapy in children with SOD. © 2006 by Lippincott Williams & Wilkins.