Acetylsalicylic acid hydrolase activity of rabbit fundic gastric mucosa has been isolated from the soluble 100,000 X g supernate. The enzymatic activity was partially purified by ammonium sulfate precipitation. The Km for acetylsalicylate was 2 mM and pH optimum was 8.6. The activity was insensitive to ionic strength, slightly inhibited by inclusion of 100 mM Cl-, and demonstrated no requirement for Ca2+ or Mg2+. Acetylsalicylic acid esterase was markedly inhibited by sodium cholate and sodium dodecyl sulfate. The enzyme was insensitive to sulfhydryl reagents with the exception of p-chloromercuribenzenesulfonic acid, which markedly inhibited the enzyme. Diisopropyl fluorophosphate (DFP) inhibited enzymatic activity with a Ki of 9 X 10(-9)M. Eserine was also inhibitory with a Ki of 0.25 mM. Inhibition by DFP at low concentration and by eserine at millimolar concentrations suggests that this enzyme is related to the group of aliphatic esterases. Identification of potent inhibitors will enable studies to define the role of this enzyme with the use of experimental preparations in which systemic toxicity can be avoided.