Cardiac resynchronization therapy (CRT) has shown benefits in patients with severe heart failure. However, at least 30% of patients selected for CRT by use of traditional criteria (New York Heart Association class III or IV, depressed left ventricular [LV] ejection fraction, and prolonged QRS duration) do not respond to CRT. Recent studies with tissue Doppler imaging have shown that the presence of LV dyssynchrony is an important predictor of response to CRT. Phase analysis has been developed to allow assessment of LV dyssynchrony by gated single photon emission computed tomography myocardial perfusion imaging. This technique uses Fourier harmonic functions to approximate regional wall thickness changes over the cardiac cycle and to calculate the regional onset-of-mechanical contraction phase. Once the onset-of-mechanical contraction phases are obtained 3-dimensionally over the left ventricle, a phase distribution map is formed that represents the degree of LV dyssynchrony. This technique has been compared with other methods of measuring LV dyssynchrony and shown promising results in clinical evaluations. In this review the phase analysis methodology is described, and its up-to-date validations are summarized. © 2008 American Society of Nuclear Cardiology.