This study examined the prognostic predictors in 521 patients with angiographic evidence of coronary artery disease (CAD). All patients underwent exercise single-photon emission computed tomographic thallium imaging. The patients were divided into those with symptomatic ischemia defined as reversible thallium defects, S-T segment depression (or both) and angina during exercise (n= 210, group 1), and silent ischemia defined as thallium defects or ST segment depression (or both) but no angina during exercise (n = 311, group 2). During a mean follow-up of 24 ±21 months, there were 30 cardiac events (death or nonfatal myocardial infarction). The extent of CAD (2.0 ±0.8 diseased vessels in group 1 and 2.1 ±0.8 diseased vessels in group 2), the left ventricular ejection fraction, the extent of perfusion abnormality (21% ±11% in group 1 and 24% ±12% in group 2), and the peak heart rate and double product were similar in the two groups. Survival analysis showed no significant difference in the event-free survival in patients with symptomatic or silent ischemia. The 2-year event-free survival rate was 95% in group 1 and 94% in group 2 (difference not significant). The extent of perfusion abnormality and history of diabetes mellitus were the most important predictors of events. Thus the prognosis of medically treated patients with CAD is comparable in those patients with silent or symptomatic ischemia and is dependent on the extent of myocardium at risk rather than presence or absence of angina pectoris during exercise. © 1994 American Society of Nuclear Cardiology.