Myocardial hibernation is hypoperfused dysfunctional myocardium that has the potential to recover function after coronary revascularization. Although recovery of regional function after revascularization is the gold standard for assessing the diagnostic accuracy of various techniques, improvements of EF, symptoms, and survival are fundamental end points. Despite important differences in the markers of viability by positron-emission tomography, single-photon emission tomography, two-dimensional echocardiography, and magnetic resonance imaging, their positive and negative predictive values in nonrandomized studies are fairly comparable. Assessment of myocardial viability may be clinically important in many patients but especially in those with EF <30% and congestive heart failure. The degree of improvement in EF after coronary revascularization depends on the extent of hibernation, the suitability of coronary structure for revascularization, the lack of perioperative infarction, the completeness of revascularization, and the long-term patency of grafts.