Background. The Bypass Angioplasty Revascularization Investigation 2 Diabetes trial demonstrated similar long-term clinical effectiveness of revascularization (REV) and intensive medical (MED) therapy. Comparisons of post-intervention ischemic burden have not been explored but are relevant to treatment decisions. This study examined differences in 1-year stress myocardial perfusion SPECT (MPS) abnormalities by randomized treatment. Methods. MPS was performed in 1,505 patients at 1-year following randomization. MPS images were analyzed (masked to treatment) by a Nuclear Core Laboratory using a quantitative percent (%) of total, ischemic, and scarred myocardium. Cox proportional hazards models were used to estimate the relationship between MPS variables and trial endpoints. Results. At 1-year, nearly all REV patients underwent the assigned procedure; while 16% of those randomized to MED received coronary REV. Patients randomized to REV exhibited fewer stress perfusion abnormalities than MED patients (P < .001). CABG patients had more frequent ischemic and scarred myocardium encumbering ≥5% of the myocardium when compared to those receiving PCI. Patients randomized to MED had more extensive ischemia and the median % of the myocardium with perfusion abnormalities was lower following REV (3% vs 9%, P = .01). A total of 59% of REV patients had no inducible ischemia at 1-year compared to 49% of MED patients (P < .001). Within the CABG stratum, those randomized to MED had the greatest rate of ischemic (P = .032) and scarred (P = .017) perfusion abnormalities. At 1-year, more extensive and severe stress myocardial perfusion abnormalities were associated with higher 5-year rates of death and a combined endpoint of cardiac death or myocardial infarction (MI) rates (11.3%, 8.1%, 6.8%, for ≥10%, 5%-9.9%, and 1-4.9% abnormal myocardium at stress, respectively, P < .001). In adjusted models, selected MPS variables were significantly associated with an increased hazard of cardiac death or MI (hazard ratio = 1.11 per 5% increase in abnormal myocardium at stress, P = .004). Conclusions. Patient management strategies that focus on ischemia resolution can be useful to guide the efficacy of near-term therapeutic approaches. A 1-year post-therapeutic intervention myocardial perfusion scan provides important information regarding prognosis in stable CAD patients with diabetes. Copyright © 2012 American Society of Nuclear Cardiology.