A patient developed West Nile virus (WNV) encephalitis 2 weeks after receiving a liver transplant and recovered fully, following treatment with intravenous immunoglobulin (IVIg). Laboratory testing documented transmission from the organ donor. Clinicians should be suspicious for organ-transmitted WNV in any post-transplant patient who develops fever and neurological symptoms. We review previous cases of organ-transmitted WNV, the use of IVIg for WNV encephalitis, and the issue of organ donor screening. © 2011 John Wiley & Sons A/S.