Background: Estrogen supplementation enhances voluntary alcohol consumption in ovariectomized rodents. The effects of the enhanced alcohol consumption on post-infarct myocardial repair are unknown. Results: Ethanol-mediated suppression of endothelial progenitor cells produces diminished post-ischemic left ventricular function. Conclusion: Estrogen-induced increases in alcohol consumption negatively compete with the cardioprotective effects of estrogen. Significance: Alcohol consumption during estrogen replacement therapy must be observed closely. © 2013 by The American Society.