Introduction: Tectal plate gliomas are generally benign neoplastic lesions arising in the brainstem which can, with local extension, obstruct the aqueduct of Sylvius and lead to hydrocephalus. Anatomy: Diagnosis is based on initial suspicion fostered by the presentation of an obstructive hydrocephalus followed by physical exam which may potentially reveal indications of pyramidal tract dysfunction or cranial nerve palsies. Discussion: MRI studies reveal a characteristic well-circumscribed, isodense or hypodense mass on T1-weighted images, with hyperdensity on T2 imaging. Yet current radiological methods insufficiently distinguish tectal plate gliomas from brainstem tumors or gliomas in the neighboring structures, and a definitive diagnosis requires biopsy and histopathological analysis. Management is planned according to the degree of associated signs and symptoms, and may range from diligent observation and periodic screening for advancing tumor development, to cerebrospinal fluid shunting in an effort to resolve obstructive hydrocephalus, to radio- and chemotherapy. A wide range of minimally invasive approaches using endoscopy is available for the neurosurgeon, including endoscopic third ventriculostomy and endoscopic aqueductoplasty. © 2013 Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg.