© 2015, Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg. Background: As important as the vertebral ligaments are in maintaining the integrity of the spinal column and protecting the contents of the spinal canal, a single detailed review of their anatomy and function is missing in the literature. Methods: A literature search using online search engines was conducted. Results: Single comprehensive reviews of the spinal ligaments are not found in the extant medical literature. Conclusions: This review will be useful to those who treat patients with pathology of the spine or who interpret imaging or investigate the anatomy of the ligaments of the vertebral column.