Patients with traumatic extracranial cerebrovascular injury (TCVI) comprise about 1% of all blunt trauma admissions according to numerous single-center studies. However, previous studies have used aggressive screening protocols; these studies may not reflect common practice and the overall incidence of TCVI. The annual incidence of the diagnosis of TCVI from 2003 to 2010 was estimated using the Nationwide Inpatient Sample (NIS). For comparison, a systematic review of previous studies of the incidence of the diagnosis of TCVI was conducted. The estimated total number of admissions with TCVI ranged from 1283 to 2652; these admissions represented 0.46-0.95% of all blunt trauma admissions. There was a significant increase in the incidence of TCVI during the study period. A total of 49 studies of TCVI reported incidences of diagnosis ranging from 0.03% to 4.8%. In conclusion, the annual nationwide incidence of the diagnosis of TCVI is increasing. Although NIS incidences of the diagnosis of TCVI are at the low end of the range of previous reports, the increasing incidence in the NIS data likely reflects increasing use of aggressive screening protocols. © Copyright 2014, Mary Ann Liebert, Inc. 2014.