OBJECTIVE: To determine if tocolytic therapy with indomethacin is associated with an increased risk of neonatal complications in infants born prior to 32 weeks' gestation. STUDY DESIGN: We performed a retrospective matched cohort study of infants born between 24 and 31 6/7 weeks' gestation. The 62 cases (indomethacin treatment) and the 62 controls were matched by week of gestation, prenatal betamethasone exposure and multifetal gestation. RESULTS: The mean gestational age of the two groups was 28.5 ± SD weeks. The median total dose of indomethacin was 425 mg, the median treatment duration was three days, and the median interval from the last dose of indomethacin until delivery was one day. There was no significant difference between the groups in the incidence of necrotizing enterocolitis, intraventricular hemorrhage, patent ductus arteriosis, sepsis or neonatal death. CONCLUSION: The use of indomethacin for tocolysis was not associated with an increased risk of neonatal complications in infants born between 24 and 31 6/7 weeks' gestation.