OBJECTIVE: To compare maternal and neonatal outcomes in women undergoing second-stage cesarean delivery after a trial of operative vaginal delivery with those in women undergoing second-stage cesarean delivery without such an attempt. METHODS: This study is a secondary analysis of the women who underwent second-stage cesarean delivery. The maternal outcomes examined included blood transfusion, endometritis, wound complication, anesthesia use, and maternal death. Neonatal outcomes examined included umbilical artery pH less than 7.0, Apgar score of 3 or less at 5 minutes, seizures within 24 hours of birth, hypoxic ischemic encephalopathy, stillbirth, skull fracture, and neonatal death. RESULTS: Of 3,189 women who underwent secondstage cesarean delivery, operative vaginal delivery was attempted in 640. Labor characteristics were similar in the two groups, with the exception of the admission-todelivery time and cesarean indication. Those with an attempted operative vaginal delivery were more likely to undergo cesarean delivery for a nonreassuring fetal heart rate tracing (18.0% compared with 13.9%, P=.01), have a wound complication (2.7% compared with 1.0%, odds ratio [OR] 2.65, 95% confidence interval [Cl] 1.43-4.91), and require general anesthesia (8.0% compared with 4.1%, OR 2.05, 95% Cl 1.44-2.91). Neonatal outcomes, including umbilical artery pH less than 7.0, Apgar score of 3 or less at 5 minutes, and hypoxic ischemic encephalopathy, were more common for those with an attempted operative vaginal delivery. This was not significant when cases with a nonreassuring fetal heart rate tracing were removed. CONCLUSION: Cesarean delivery after an attempt at operative vaginal delivery was not associated with adverse neonatal outcomes in the absence of a nonreassuring fetal heart rate tracing. © 2009 by The American College of Obstetricians and Gynecologists.