It has been demonstrated that most paroxysmal atrial fibrillation (AF) is triggered by ectopic beats originating from the pulmonary veins (PVs). It has been recently reported that some AF episodes are maintained by focal drivers and AF substrates in the PVs and atrium. Left atrial ablation combined with PV isolation targeting AF triggers and drivers may be effective for eliminating atrial arrhythmias. However, multiple AF drivers in the PVs and atrium and acute conduction recovery after the PV isolation may sometimes render that technique less reliable. In this article, we describe the current status of the catheter ablation of focal triggers and drivers of AF in the PVs and atrium, illustrating with case presentations. © 2008 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.