While serotonin 5-HT1A receptor (5-HT1AR) agonists reduce l-DOPA-induced dyskinesias (LID) by normalizing activity in the basal ganglia neurocircuitry, recent evidence suggests putative 5-HT1AR within the primary motor cortex (M1) may also contribute. To better characterize this possible mechanism, c-fos immunohistochemistry was first used to determine the effects of systemic administration of the full 5-HT1AR agonist ±8-OH-DPAT on l-DOPA-induced immediate early gene expression within M1 and the prefrontal cortex (PFC) of rats with unilateral medial forebrain bundle (MFB) dopamine (DA) lesions. Next, in order to determine if direct stimulation of 5-HT1AR within M1 attenuates the onset of LID, rats with MFB lesions were tested for l-DOPA-induced abnormal involuntary movements (AIMs) and rotations following M1 microinfusions of ±8-OH-DPAT with or without coadministration of the 5-HT1AR antagonist WAY100635. Finally, ±8-OH-DPAT was infused into M1 at peak dyskinesia to determine if 5-HT1AR stimulation attenuates established l-DOPA-induced AIMs and rotations. While no treatment effects were seen within the PFC, systemic ±8-OH-DPAT suppressed l-DOPA-induced c-fos within M1. Intra-M1 5-HT1AR stimulation diminished the onset of AIMs and this effect was reversed by WAY100635 indicating receptor specific effects. Finally, continuous infusion of ±8-OH-DPAT into M1 at peak dyskinesia alleviated l-DOPA-induced AIMs. Collectively, these findings support an integral role for M1 in LID and its modulation by local 5-HT1AR. © 2011 Published by Elsevier Ltd.