We have identified p10 as a fifth gag protein of avian sarcoma and leukemia viruses. Amino-terminal protein sequencing of this polypeptide purified from the Prague C strain of Rous sarcoma virus and from avian myeloblastosis virus implies that it is encoded within a stretch of 64 amino acid residues between p19 and p27 on the gag precursor polypeptide. For p10 from the Prague C strain of Rous sarcoma virus the first 30 residues were found to be identical with the predicted amino acid sequence from the Prague C strain of Rous sarcoma virus DNA sequence, whereas for p10 from avian myeloblastosis virus the protein sequence for the same region showed two amino acid substitutions. Amino acid composition data indicate that there are no gross composition changes beyond the region sequenced. The amino terminus of p10 is located two amino acid residues past the carboxy terminus of p19, whereas its carboxy terminus probably is located immediately adjacent to the first amino acid residue of p27.