Nitrotyrosine in human and animal tissues has been associated with pathologic conditions such as atherosclerosis, renal failure, and acute lung disease. In this study, free and protein-associated nitrotyrosine were determined in plasma and tissue samples using a dual-channel electrochemical detection method. Free nitrotyrosine was quantified in acetonitrile- extracted samples while protein-associated nitrotyrosine was determined in proteinase K-digested samples. In human plasma, total nitrotyrosine increased from 2.3 to 4.3 and 13.2 μmol/mol Tyr following addition of 0, 0.5, and 1 mM ONOO . To determine if nitrotyrosine was produced during ex vivo hypothermic preservation, rat livers were stored in University of Wisconsin solution (UW) for 0, 6, or 8 h and reperfused for 3 h. Total nitrotyrosine increased 359 and 908% after 6 and 8 h preservation compared to 0 h. To determine if nitrotyrosine was produced in vivo following hepatic ischemia, a rat preservation-transplantation model was utilized in which livers were flushed with cold UW (0-h group) or transplanted following 6 h hypothermic preservation in UW. Free nitrotyrosine increased from 15.7 ± 0.3 in the 0-h group to 23.6 ± 2.5 μmol/mol Tyr, 24 h posttransplant of 6-h preserved livers. Protein-associated nitrotyrosine increased from 9.5 ± 1.1 in the 0- h group to 27.5 ± 0.7 μmol/mol Tyr in the 6-h preservation-transplantation group. Protein-associated nitrotyrosine provides an integrative determination of nitration. Detection of free and protein-associated nitrotyrosine in biologic samples may allow insight into the role of ·NO-derived oxidants in tissue injury associated with various pathologic conditions.