Experiments were undertaken to examine gene transfer in Mycoplasma pulmonis. Parent strains containing transposon-based tetracycline and chloramphenicol resistance markers were combined to allow transfer of markers. Two mating protocols were developed. The first consisted of coincubating the strains in broth culture for extended periods of time. The second protocol consisted of a brief incubation of the combined strains in a 50% solution of polyethylene glycol. Using either protocol, progeny that had acquired antibiotic resistance markers from both parents were obtained. Analysis of the progeny indicated that only the transposon and not flanking genomic DNA was transferred to the recipient cell. Gene transfer was DNase resistant and probably the result of conjugation or cell fusion.