Variations within the musculature of the lateral compartment of the leg are uncommon. However, clinicians and radiologists should be aware of anatomical alterations in this region when involved in diagnosis or imaging interpretation. The present report describes a well-developed muscle of the lateral compartment of the leg that inserted distally onto the talus and calcaneus. This muscle could be considered a variation of the so-called peroneus quartus muscle. To the authors' knowledge this muscle variation has not been described as having an attachment onto the talus thus the term 'peroneotalocalcaneus muscle' is proposed. © 2008 The Authors Journal compilation © 2008 Japanese Association of Anatomists.