In just a few years, the view of glycogen synthase kinase-3 (GSK3) has been transformed from an obscure enzyme seldom encountered in the immune literature to one implicated in an improbably large number of roles. GSK3 is a crucial regulator of the balance between pro- and anti-inflammatory cytokine production in both the periphery and the central nervous system, so that GSK3 inhibitors such as lithium can diminish inflammation. GSK3 influences T-cell proliferation, differentiation and survival. Many effects stem from GSK3 regulation of critical transcription factors, such as NF-κB, NFAT and STATs. These discoveries led to the rapid application of GSK3 inhibitors to animal models of sepsis, arthritis, colitis, multiple sclerosis and others, demonstrating their potential for therapeutic intervention. © 2009 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.