The Southeastern Cancer Study Group conducted a randomized clinical trial in acute myeloblastic leukemia and the blastic phase of chronic myelocytic leukemia to compare: Two induction programs (Schedule A) cytosine arabinoside and 6-thioguanine or (Schedule B) cytosine arabinoside, 6-thioguanine and daunorubicin; two consolidation programs (Schedule C) continuation of induction programs at a reduced dose or (Schedule D) a combination of cyclophosphamide, methotrexate and vincristine; and two maintenance programs - (Schedule E) 1 month of BCG, followed by methotrexate or (Schedule F) methotrexate. Over a 3 year period 372 patients were entered and 295 were judged evaluable. None of 11 patients with blastic phase of chronic myelocytic leukemia responded. There were no significant differences between the schedules in the number of patients with acute myeloblastic leukemia achieving complete remissions (37%, Schedule A vs. 41% Schedule B). The relapse rates on consolidation were similar (43%, Schedule C and 39%, Schedule D). BCG significantly prolonged the duration of first remission following consolidation (P<0.05) from 13.0-23.9 weeks. Survival was not significantly prolonged (92.7 weeks vs. 71.7 weeks). There were no serious complications from BCG therapy. © 1978 Springer-Verlag.