Previous studies have shown implantable ferromagnetic thermoseeds to be a promising hyperthermia method. However, migration from the implant site and chemical toxicity caused by corrosion of the thermoseed alloy have proven to be potential hazards. These problems could be overcome by placing the thermoseeds into removable catheters similar to those used for afterloading interstitial brachytherapy. As an additional merit, the method would allow convenient combination of heat and radiation therapy. To test the clinical performance of this method, we compared temperature distributions and biologic effects in canine muscle and transmissible venereal tumors for bare thermoseeds and thermoseeds contained within catheters. We found no significant difference in the heating patterns and similar tissue changes when all implants were removed immediately after heating. More severe tissue changes were present around bare thermoseeds that were retained. This suggests that catheters provide a safe and reliable method for thermoseed hyperthermia which would allow convenient combination with interstitial radiation. © 1989.