Transposition immunity is the negative influence that the presence of one transposon sequence has on the probability of a second identical element inserting in the same site or in sites nearby. A transposition-defective Mu derivative (MudJr1) produced transposition immunity in both directions from one insertion point in the Salmonella typhimurium chromosome. To control for the sequence preference of Mu transposition proteins, Tn10 elements were introduced as targets at various distances from an immunity-conferring MudJr1 element. Mu transposition into a Tn10 target was not detectable when the distance of separation from MudJr1 was 5 kb, and transposition was unencumbered when the separation was 25 kb. Between 5 kb and 25 kb, immunity decayed gradually with distance. Immunity decayed more sharply in a gyrase mutant than in a wild-type strain. We propose that Mu transposition immunity senses the domain structure of bacterial chromosomes.