DEFEAT Heart Failure: Clinical Manifestations, Diagnostic Assessment, and Etiology of Geriatric Heart Failure

Academic Article


  • Aging is characterized by heterogeneity, both in health and in disease. Older adults who have heart failure (HF) often have atypical and delayed clinical manifestations and many have diastolic HF. The assessment and management of HF in older adults may be simplified by a 5-step process called DEFEAT HF: (1) establish a clinical Diagnosis of HF; (2) establish an Etiology for HF, preferably in collaboration with a cardiologist; (3) determine Fluid status and achieve euvolemia; (4) determine left ventricular Ejection frAction; and (5) provide evidence-based Therapy. © 2007 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
  • Authors

    Digital Object Identifier (doi)

    Author List

  • Ahmed A
  • Start Page

  • 389
  • End Page

  • 402
  • Volume

  • 3
  • Issue

  • 4