Clinical Manifestations, Diagnostic Assessment, and Etiology of Heart Failure in Older Adults

Academic Article


  • Clinical manifestation of HF in older adults may be atypical and diagnostic assessment might be delayed. Assessment of HF in older adults may be made simple by following a simple 5-step process, DEFEAT HF: Diagnosis, Etiology, Fluid status, Ejection fraAcion, and Treatment for HF (see Box 2). A thorough history and a careful physical examination should allow proper clinical diagnosis of HF in most cases. An underlying cause for HF must be identified, preferably in collaboration with a cardiologist. All patients who have HF should be assessed carefully for volume status to achieve euvolemia. LVEF must be determined in all patients with a clinical diagnosis of HF to assess prognosis and guide therapy. All HF patients should be treated with evidence-based therapies according to the recommendations of a major national HF guideline. © 2006 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
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    Author List

  • Ahmed A
  • Start Page

  • 11
  • End Page

  • 30
  • Volume

  • 23
  • Issue

  • 1