Predictors and outcomes of resistant hypertension among patients with coronary artery disease and hypertension

Academic Article


  • Obective: Resistant hypertension (res-HTN) is a challenging problem, but little is known of res-HTN in patients with coronary artery disease (CAD). In this post-hoc INternational VErapamil SR-Trandolapril STudy (INVEST) analysis, we assessed prevalence, predictors, and impact on outcomes of res-HTN in CAD patients with hypertension. Methods: Participants (n=17190) were divided into three groups according to achieved blood pressure (BP): controlled (BP <140/90mmHg on three or fewer drugs); uncontrolled (BP ≥140/90mmHg on two or fewer drugs); or resistant (BP ≥140/90mmHg on three drugs or any patient on at least four drugs). Results: The prevalence of res-HTN was 38%: significant predictors of res-HTN included heart failure [odds ratio (OR) 1.73], diabetes (OR 1.63), Black race (OR 1.50), and US residence (OR 1.50). Compared with controlled HTN, res-HTN had multivariate-adjusted association with higher risk of adverse outcomes {first occurrence of all-cause death, nonfatal myocardial infarction, or nonfatal stroke [hazard ratio 1.27, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.13-1.43], and individual outcomes of all-cause death (hazard ratio 1.29, 95% CI 1.13-1.48), cardiovascular mortality (hazard ratio 1.47, 95% CI 1.21-1.78), and nonfatal stroke (hazard ratio 1.61, 95% CI 1.17-2.22), but not nonfatal myocardial infarction (hazard ratio 0.98, 95% CI 0.72-1.34)}. Adverse outcomes, except nonfatal stroke, did not differ in patients with res-HTN compared to uncontrolled HTN. ConclusionS: Res-HTN is common in patients with CAD and hypertension, associated with poor prognosis, and linked with a number of conditions. Emphasis should be placed on recognizing those at risk for res-HTN and future studies should examine whether more aggressive treatment of res-HTN improves outcomes. © 2014 Wolters Kluwer Health | Lippincott Williams & Wilkins.
  • Authors

    Digital Object Identifier (doi)

    Author List

  • Smith SM; Gong Y; Handberg E; Messerli FH; Bakris GL; Ahmed A; Bavry AA; Pepine CJ; Cooper-Dehoff RM
  • Start Page

  • 635
  • End Page

  • 643
  • Volume

  • 32
  • Issue

  • 3