C57B1/6NNia mice 1, 12, and 24 months old showed loss of cellular-mediated cytotoxicity with aging. Treatment of the three age groups with different thymic hormone preparations effected their cellular mediated cytotoxicity differently. When cytotoxicity of the thymic hormone treated groups was compared to that of the physiological saline treated group, 1-month-old mice treated with serum thymic factor (FTS) at 1 μg/mouse and 10 ng/mouse had significantly higher activity, and lower to similar activities at 12 and 24 months; TP5 (active fragment of thymopoietin) at 1 μg and 10 ng caused significantly higher activity in 1-month-old mice, and lower to higher and significantly lower to similar activity at 12 and 24 months, respectively; TM4 (an analogue of TP5) at 1 ng showed significantly depressed activity in 1-month-old mice, and significantly enhanced activity in 12- and 24-month-old mice; thymosin at 10 μg and 1 μg had slightly lower, but not significant, depression at 1 month, similar activities at 12 months and significantly depressed to higher activity at 24 months. Unimmunized control mice showed significant protection in the 12-month-old mice in comparison to 1- and 24-month-old mice. Different hormone preparations showed age- and dose-dependent effects on the ability of spleen cells to kill P815 mastocytoma. Partial restoration of cytotoxicity was observed in 24-month-old mice treated with FTS, TP5 and thymosin fraction V. © 1983.